Masses of labourers,
crowded into the factory,
are organized like soldiers, as privates of the industrial army.
They are placed under the command
of a perfect hierarchy,
of officers and sergeants.
Not only are they slaves of the bourgeois class,
and of the bourgeois State;
they are daily and hourly
enslaved by the machine,
by the overlooker, and, above all,
by the individual bourgeois manufacturer himself.
The more openly this despotism proclaims gain to be its end, and aim,
the more petty,
the more hateful
and the more embittering it is.